Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/
You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.
In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.
It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:
Means of blocking
Analytical and performance cookies
Realytics Google Analytics Spoteffects Optimizely
Targeted advertising cookies
The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:
Social media and advertising cookies
These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.
These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.
These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.
Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).
These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)
Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.
Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.
For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at email@example.com or by post at:
INRA 24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France
The researches involve both plant pathogenic bacteria (phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas and proteobacteria), most of which are uncultivated , and animal pathogens (mycoplasmas). Phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas and mycoplasmas belong to the class Mollicutes, a group of cell wall-less bacteria with small genomes that includes pathogens of man, animals and plants. Through the integrative studies carried out on various mollicutes and active collaborations the Mollicutes team is nationally and internationally recognized as a major pole of expertise for these organisms.
The overall objective of the team is to generate fundamental knowledge on the evolution of genomes of mollicutes and the molecular mechanisms that govern the interactions of these "minimal" bacteria with their eukaryotic hosts. In addition, part of our researches, more field-oriented, is devoted to the etiology and epidemiology of emerging phloem bacterial diseases.
Functional studies focus on a limited number of organisms: Spiroplasma citri (a model organism which can be cultured in cell-free medium and genetically engineered), and the stolbur and flavescence dorée grapevine phytoplasmas. For animal mycoplasmas, the current studies focus on ruminant mycoplasmas and especially Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumoniae.
Lines of research :
1 - Etiology, diagnosis and epidemiology of phloem-limited bacteriosis
Phloem-limited bacteriosis are incurable diseases and their control is based on prophylactic methods. We develop molecular diagnostics targetting the bacterial DNA to allow the detection and the elimination of infected plants. Sequencing the genome of these bacteria has enabled the development of bacterial genotyping tools used to trace the pathways of bacterial propagation. We describe new bacterial species, demonstrate their etiological role and identify their main plant reservoirs and insect vectors. Finally, we develop the use of genetic markers predictive of phytoplasma epidemic properties to sustain a lower use of insecticide. Our research projects focus on grapevine flavescence dorée and bois noir, but also on lavender decline, marginal chlorosis of strawberry and citrus Huanglongbing. They are conducted in collaboration with the laboratories of the Euro-Mediterranean region, the plant protection services and technical institutes. The team hosts a unique collection of phytoplasma maintained on Madagascar periwinkle in safety containment greenhouse providing resources for international research and supplying diagnostic laboratories with DNA controls.
2 - Interactions of phytopathogenic mollicutes with their host plant and insect vector
To improve control of phytoplasma diseases (eg grapevine Flavescence Dorée (FD) and Bois Noir (BN), lavender decline), we study the interactions between phytoplasmas and their host plants and insect vectors.
Our research aims at characterizing the susceptibility range to FD disease within the genus Vitis in terms of phytoplasma multiplication and diffusion in the plant. We inoculate FD phytoplasma to different grapevine cultivars and species through transmission by its natural insect vector Scaphoideus titanus. We study the deregulation of gene expression and metabolism which can explain the differences of susceptibility. The final output aims at identifying resistance sources that can be used for grapevine breeding. From the FD phytoplasma genome sequence, we seek and characterize phytoplasma effectors, i.e. secreted proteins having a role in pathogenesis. For maximum environmental safety, all operations are carried out in a high confinement greenhouse (link).
Insect transmission of phytoplasmas to healthy plant comprises different steps: crossing the intestinal barrier, proliferation into different insect tissues and invasion of the salivary glands. Understanding these mechanisms requires studying both partners, the phytoplasma and its vector. In the case of the FD phytoplasma, we aim at characterizing both the phytoplasma components and the insect receptors implicated into insect cell invasion. The populations of the stolbur/BN phytoplasma insect vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus, are characterized in relation with their symbiotic bacterial community and phytoplasma transmission.
Using new approaches of synthetic biology, it is now possible to clone a bacterial genome into yeast, to modify it and to transplant it back to a recipient cell. These approaches are particularly promising for mollicutes for which very few genetic tools are available. Currently, genome transplantation is only restricted to very few species of mycoplasmas. Combining comparative genomics and synthetic biology, we aim at extending genome engineering and transplantation technics to other bacterial species and use them in applied projects such as construction of new vaccinale strains for the control of animal mycoplasma disease and study of phytoplasmas that are phytopathogenic, uncultivated bacteria.